| There are two major texts, at least,
that deal with civilizations that existed in what today's
anthropologists call prehistory: one is the Red Book of Westmarch, on
which Professor Tolkien based his LORD OF THE RINGS. The other is the
Nemedian Chronicles, which deals both with the "Pre-Cataclysmic" age
and the Hyborian Age, on which Robert E. Howard based his Kull and
Conan stories. Looking into real prehistory, about the only place you
can fit the over seven thousand years of Tolkien's history and eight
thousand years of Howard's history, and have Cro-Magnon man functioning
in a non-glacial environment, is in the relatively warm period of
50,000 to 25,000 years ago. Besides, as you'll see below, there is good
reason, taking Tolkien at his word, to date the "awakening of the
elves" as when the Big Dipper/Great Bear formed. Certainly, it is one
of the few events that can be dated to our timelines.
I've divided the chronology into five ages, but you can see some
notes below. You'll notice in the chronology I include some markers
from "real" prehistory.
Why do the archeologists dig up no artifacts from the Hyborian,
Fourth/Thurian/Pre-Cataclysmic, Third, Second, or even First Ages?
Well, some of the structures are five to ten times older than the
Sphynx or the Pyramids, which are showing signs of wear and tear.
Natural erosion and rust would account for some of it. Also, we have
reason to believe that cultists of the entities H.P. Lovecraft
described may have already raised such caches. Certainly the "Starry
Wisdom" cult got the "Shining Trapezedon" which had passed through the
hands of the serpent-men of Valusia, among others, according to the
account of the late Robert Blake. Doubtless such cultists repeatedly
mined and looked for caches of such artifacts long before modern
archeology got off the ground. They would have destroyed remaining
caches to keep rival cultists from getting hold of "mystical" objects
once they were through with it...and over centuries, eventually
destroyed traces of these earlier civilizations. (They would have no
real way to distinguish objects from, say, Kull's time than from
Isildur's time, and destroyed them all.)
Many researchers have contributed to these conclusions...I would like
to especially like to thank Dale Rippke, Alberto Monteiro, and Cheryl
Lynx, whose research has helped immensely. Many others, too numerous to
mention, have contributed in part.
Preliminary timeline on the earliest ages in Tolkien, with actual
dates to one side. Since Valarian years are 9.582 solar years, I made
adjustments for that (see MORGOTH'S RING). Only major events are mentioned.
(No, I don't know what the "creation" of the Sun and Moon means in
this context. I think the Valar are extra-universal beings sent to
help foster the creation of the "children of Illuvatur", Elves and
humans. That they didn't shape Earth, but prepared it for the coming
of full functioning hominids, like Cro-Magnon man. It's possible that
Morgoth got there first and blocked the sun with some sort of screen,
at least in the visible spectrum, which may have triggered another
glaciation, although the heat and ultra-violet light did go through.
The Valar, having no reference to compare it to, didn't recognize his
stratagem till the death of the Two Trees, and the Maiar they sent
aloft actually destroyed the "screen" between Earth and the visible
Sun and Moon.)
The date for the awakening of the Elves is when the Great Bear was
first observed in its current form, which Tolkien said when
Varda/Elbereth kindled several new constellations, including the Great
Bear. Everything else more or less flows from that, but doubtless the
dates could be moved by several centuries or even several thousand
years either way without much harm.
According to a site I found, the Big Dipper/Great Bear first was observed in its present form around 50,000 B.C.
"The seven are not moving in the same direction, and over time the
asterism will dissolve. In fact, it is only the last 50,000 years or
so that a discernible "dipper" has formed. As the stars move their
separate ways, the shape will more and more become plough-like, with
the pointer star (alpha Ursae Majoris) moving in front of the rest,
and somewhat south of its present position."
For the Valacirca, the Sickle of the Valar, was the same as the Great
Bear/Great Dipper. Varda put it in the sky in my original edition of
the Silmarillion, on page 48, and Beren makes a song in praise of it on
It was said as Varda ended her labors, and put those constellations in the sky, the Elves awoke....
The Fourth/Thurian/Pre-Cataclysmic Age
A lot of the dating on THIS one is dependent on the dating of the age
after this. (The Hyborian Age.) It doesn't have a LOT of information
in it---we know a lot about the beginning of the Fourth AGe, and a lot
towards the end (King Kull and Valusia) and practically nothing
inbetween, save for one reference in HOUR OF THE DRAGON/CONAN THE
CONQUEROR. Certainly there is room---especially since Howard said the
civilized areas were a relatively small amount of the continent---for
other things to be happening, in a more traditional Stone Age setting.
It may be that, for instance, the Earth's Children series by Jean Auel
(CLAN OF THE CAVE BEAR, etc.), or William Golding's INHERITORS either
happened in the "hinterlands" while King Kull was ruling Valusia, or
in the few thousand years of total savagery after the Great Cataclysm
in the early Hyborian Age.
Of course, I had to move Kull back in time from the "traditional"
time of 20,000 A.D., since, that would put the City of Wonders
smack-dab in the worst part of an Ice Age. And Howard DID say the
"glacial ages started" (actually, the recurrence of the last phase of
the last glacial age) as the Hyborian Age ended. So I have textural
reference for dating these so.
Still...when you got used to a scholar like Tolkien, it's rather
eye-opening to go from the involved chronologies and appendixes of
Tolkien to the more slapdash style of a professional fiction writer
The easternmost of the "Seven Empires" that Valusia competed with
was called---Grondar. Could Grondar be a later version of the kingdom
Linguistic shift over centuries could account for
the shift from "Gon" to "Gron", and from "Dor" to "Dar", relatively minor
changes? Gondor could have expanded east, completely occupying the lands
once known as Mordor...
Do we see any other signs of Tolkien's cultures in the later
stories of King Kull? I think we see at least linguistic clues, clues
Tolkien would appreciate. Valusia, the country King Kull usurped, seems
to be composed of two Quenya words. "Val" means power, as in the
Valar. Although there's no "usia", there IS an "os" which means fortress.
Save for Kull's home isles and the Pitish isles, it's the westernmost of
the lands on the "Thurian" continent, the one facing where the blessed land
of the Valar is. How fitting, then, to call it "Valos"---Power
Fortress---and to have it corrupted, over centuries, to the name "Valusia".
And almost all the cultures of the pre-Cataclysmic age swore by
Valka, a ---fertility?---god, but one which seems all-powerful, although
some other gods were mentioned. Again, "Val" means power in Quenya, and
"Ca" or "Ka" or "Kal", although more often used as a prefix, not a suffix,
meant "bright". If Valka wasn't explicitedly a male god, we might think
Valka is another name for Varda, Elbereth, the Star-Queen of the
Valar. More likely it's another word for Eru, the One who created the
Valar. Even a barbarian like Kull, not raised by the Thurian culture,
swore by him, as did his friend Brule of the Pictish Isles.
Trolls in the days of Tolkien's stories were twice the size of men,
immensely strong, and has green scales like armour, but extremely
dim-witted. In the days of the War of the Ring, Sauron introduced the
Olog-Hai, huge trolls with the intelligence of evil men who could
resist the sun. When Sauron fell, most of the Olog-Hai wandered away,
their bestial intelligence returning. But what if the trolls were bred
for size and dull-wittedness from the serpent-men mentioned by Howard?
The serpent-men of Valusia, whom Kull fought, were green-skinned and
scaled, and are named as part of the Cthulhu mythos by Lovecraft, not
just Howard. Valusia is near where the Shire was, once, albeit a little
South. I suspect, as I mentioned in an earlier post, that the Valar
opened a gateway to another world for the hobbits to live, free of
being harrassed by men....the land Dorothy Gale entered. (The
Quadlings, Winkies, Munchkins, etc. may be distant descendents of the
hobbits. Note they are also "halflings"---the size of a child when full
grown.) Perhaps the Ents and the Huorns (the Tin Woodman fought some
talking trees who were very like Huorns) and the intelligent eagles
also might have migrated into the land that would be later known as Oz,
to make way for the growing ranks of men. The diminished,
newly-intelligent Trolls/serpent-men might have enslaved the humans of
Valusia until they finally rose and revolted, and hence the proud name
of "Power Fortress", Valos, later Valusia.
What about Lemuria, Mu and Atlantis? While I don't doubt there
were island kingdoms of that time, those names are from a variety of occult
and ancient sources. I suspect their true names were something different,
and Howard changed them to more familiar names for most readers.
By Kull's time, the empires such as Valusia and Grondar are
decadent, effete remnents of a once mighty people.....Grondar is called
"less cultured" than her sister empires, with Valusia perhaps originally
being a subject kingdom where many of the more cultured migrated to. Or
perhaps the influx and absorption of other peoples, caused them to
eventually rename their land, after "Grond", the Hammer of the Underworld
that Morgoth wielded. I think it more likely, though, that this is the sad
remains of Gondor, both linguistically and literally. (It may be that
Gondor, like the Roman Empire, split into two halves, and the eastern half
became Grondar, and the other split into smaller empires, as happened to
the Western Roman Empire.)
I think the "prehuman race" like the resurrected sorcerer in HOUR
OF THE DRAGON mentioned by Howard are actually Black Numenoreans. They
are learned in sorcery, tall, pale, many characteristics shared by the
Mouth of Sauron. (He didn't have glowing eyes, unlike Howard's
examples, but his horse did---maybe a side effect of his knowledge of
sorcery?) Since they are Numenoreans, they could easily be descended
from Elros, who was half-elven. Later ages called them the "Eldar
Race", a name usually reserved for the elves, which refers to traces
of their elven blood. I also think the pre-Stygian race in Luxor are
part of the same race, including the vampiress mentioned below.
The Hyborian Age
Okay, this is the Howard-only one---and let me say, trying to work out
a consistent chronology from Howard's "The Hyborian Age" is NOT an
easy job. I got about three or four different totals every time I
tried. Luckily, we knew from CONAN THE CONQUEROR/HOUR OF THE DRAGON
that Acheron fell 3000 years before Conan, and had been around for
2500 years. And we knew the Lemurians had been held captive by the
people who moved into Stygia/Acheron for at least two thousand years
before THAT. So that gives us 7500 years, at least, between the Great
Cataclysm and Conan. So the traditional 8000 years between Kull and
Conan looks good...because other researchers, even the reknowned DAle
Rippke in "The Mystery of Pre-Human Stygia" at
http://www.rehupa.com/rippke_stygia.htm have come up with other
totals, like, 6500 years.
I also want to bring up a rather odd peculiarity of ALL these
ancient texts and maps. We expect some lousy maps (just look at some
medieval maps) but all of them make a glaring omission. All of them
leave out the Mediterranean, but the Mediterranean has been around for
the last ten million years. Tolkien does it. Howard does it, both in
map and text. So what's going on?
I suggest--as a provisional theory---that there is something
either holy or extremely feared about the Mediterranean before 25,000
B.C. The avoiding of mentioning something that is OBVIOUSLY
there---there must have been times when Conan had to cross the
Mediterranean to get where he's going---strikes me as religious, on a
par with a Muslim refusing to see the Prophet depicted in a movie or
picture, or the early Greek Orthodox Christians choosing not to use
relistic images of people, on the "thou shalt make no graven image"
idea. Perhaps the Mediterranean was holy to the Mother Goddess, the
"fat broad" (as an archeology professor of mine called her) whose
image is scattered throughout prehistoric Europe. That even the
mention of crossing it, or the depiction of it in maps, was forbidden.
(Maybe mentioning the Mother Goddess in text was forbidden also, which
is why we have no mention of her in Tolkien OR Howard.....unless Yavanna is meant to be depicted.)
That's just a guess. I don't think Conan was a particularly
religious man (except about Crom) but whoever wrote the Nemedian
Chronicles might have been---or afraid of being stoned/burned at the
stake or whatever they did back then.
Anyway, the Hyborian Age might be called the Fifth Age in
Here's the actual chronology:
AGES OF THE VALAR /LAMPS) (Every Valarian year is equal to 9.582 solar
years, according to Morgoth's Ring. The numbering is in Valerian
years, but the B.C. is in solar years, of course.)
Year 1(93,598 B.C.)
- The Valar come to Arda
- War between Melkor and Manwë
Year 1500(79,225 B.C.)
- Tulkas the Strong comes to Arda
- Melkor flees
Year 1900 (75, 393 B.C.)
- The Two Lamps Illuin and Ormal are set upon mighty pillars, in the
North and South of Middle-earth
Year 3450 (60,156 B.C.)
- Melkor attacks: Illuin and Ormal are destroyed
- The Valar retreat to Aman
Year 3500 (60,061 B.C.)
- Making of the Two Trees
- The Age of the Trees begin
AGE OF THE TREES
Year 1 [c. 60,061 B.C.]
- End of the Age of the Valar
58,000 B.C. - 53,000 B.C.
- Conditions around the world become
warmer, though still generally colder than today.
53,000 B.C. - 27,000 B.C.
- Homo Erectus alive in Southeast Asia.
1050 [c. 50,000 B.C.]
- Awakening of the Elves
1085 (49,186 B.C.)
- Orome finds the Elves in Kuivienen
1100 (49,042 b.c.)
- Melkor is chained
1179 (48,764 B.C.)
- Birth of Feanor, son of Finwe and Miriel
- The Alphabet of Rumil is designed
- Middle Paleolithic Age/Middle Stone Age
- Africa - Homo Sapiens - Europe - Neanderthals
1400 (46,747 B.C. )
- Melkor released from captivity with Mandos.
1450 (46,167 B.C.)
- The Silmarils, the three most splendid jewels in the Kingdom of
Arda, with the light of the two trees blended in them are full-
wrought. They are hollowed by Varda and all of Valinor is in awe with
the greatest work of any Elf.
1495 (45, 735 B.C.)
- Ungoliantë destroys the Two Trees
- Morgoth kills Finwë and steals the Silmarills
- Morgoth and Ungoliant flee to Beleriand
- Battle of Alqualondë
- The Flight of the Noldor begins
1500 (45,688 B.C.)
- Fingolfin and the rest of the Noldor come to Beleriand
- Making of the Sun and the Moon. First Age begins
- Men awakes in Hildórien
5 (45,683 B.C.)
- Maedhros (c. 3150 years old) is rescued from Thangorodrim by Fingon
102 (45, 586 B.C.)
- Nargothrond is built. Finrod Felagund (c. 2100 years old) leaves
Minas Tirith to his younger brother Orodreth and goes to Nargothrond
116 (45, 570 B.C.)
- Gondolin is built. Turgon (c. 2115 years old) is its King
260 (45, 372 B.C.)
- First attack by Glaurung
262 (34,370 B.C.)
- Beor born.
343 (45,345 B.C.)
- Aredhel and Maeglin escape to Gondolin. They are followed by Eol.
Eol kills Aredhel. Eol is sentenced to death and executed
355 (45,333 B.C.)
- Death of Beor(93)
432 (45, 256 B.C.
- Death of Boromir(95)
- Birth of Beren son of Emeldir(26) and Barahir(32)
455 (45,233 B.C.)
- Dagor Bragollach, the Battle of Sudden Flame
- Dead in the first assault: Bregolas(62), Angrod(c. 2000), Aegnor(c.
- Ard-galen is destroyed and becomes Anfauglith
- Barahir(55) becomes King of Dorthonion after his brother Bregolas
464 (45,224 B.C.)
- Húrin of the House of Hador weds Morwen of the House of Bëor.
- Túrin, their son, is born in Dor-lomin with omens of sorrow.
- Beren leaves Dorthonion and travels to Doriath. He meets Lúthien
Tinúviel in the forest of Neldoreth and they fall in love.
- Turin meets Nienor in the Forest of Brethil
499 (45, 189)
- Turin kills Glaurung, self, sister Nienor slays self.
511 (45, 177 B.C.)
- The Fall of Gondolin
532 (45,156 B.C.)
- Elros and Elrond, twin sons of Eärendil, are born.
545-87 (45,143-45,101 B.C.)
- The Last War of the Elder Days, also called Great Battle and the War
Morgoth's Angband is razed. The last two Silmarils are recovered.
Eärendil slays Ancalagon the Black, greatest of the winged dragons,
and all but two of the dragons are destroyed. The Valar aid in the
defeat and destruction of Morgoth, who is thrust beyond the Gates of
Night never to return.
616 [c. 45,072 B.C.]
The age of the fall of Numenor and the forging of the One Ring.
1 (45,071 BC.)
- Foundation of Lindon, ruled by High King Gil-galad, and of
Mithlond, ruled by Cirdan Shipwright.
32 (45,039 B.C.)
- The Edain, led by Elros, establishes Númenor on the island Elenna
that was given to them by the Valar.
500 (44,571 B.C.)
- Sauron, deeming the time is right, begins his evil schemes again by
attempting to seduce the Elves, knowing they have the greatest skills
700 (44,371 B.C.)
- The Noldor, led by Galadriel and Celeborn, settle in Eregion,
seeking the friendship with the great dwarven city Khazad-dûm and to
trade with mithril, which both races account as the most valuable
metal. Eregion means Land of Holly, which is the most beloved tree of
750 (44321 B.C.
- The Noldor begin building Ost-in-Edhil, the chief city of Eregion.
Celebrimbor, seeking to excel his grandfather Fëanor, founds The
Gwaith-i-Mírdain, People of the Jewel-smiths whose purpose is to ever
seek more knowledge and improve their crafts.
1000 (44,071 B.C.)
- Sauron, fearing the power of the Númenoreans, begins building the
Barad-dûr in Mordor, a secure place with mountain surrounding the
borders, thus easy to defend from his chief enemies, the Elves and
Númenoreans who come to the shores of Middle-earth.
1200 (43,871 B.C.)
- Sauron under the name of Annatar begins teaching the smiths of
Eregion, especially in the making of Rings, but has no luck in
seducing Gil-galad, who refuses to have any dealings with him.
Gil-galad sends warnings to Eregion, but they are not heeded since the
elves there welcome the teachings of Sauron.
1375 (43,696 B.C.)
- Galadriel leaves Eregion and dwells in Loth-lórien, because the
Gwaith-i-Mírdain revolts against her and Celeborn's rule. Celebrimbor
becomes Lord of Eregion. Celeborn, not wishing to take the route
through Khazad-dûm to Lórien stays in Eregion. .
1500 (43,571 B.C.)
- The Gwaith-i-Mirdain begins forging the Rings of Power. Under
Sauron's instructions they make the sixteen Rings, which he hopes will
put the elves under his dominion.
1590 (43,481 B.C.)
- Celebrimbor forges in secret his masterwork, the Three Rings.
1600 (43,471 B.C.)
- Sauron forges the One Ring and places it on his finger. The elves
find out, remove their rings so Sauron can not gain control of them
and hide the Rings to prevent Sauron from using them on others. Sauron
completes the Barad-dûr.
1601 (43,470 B.C.)
- Celebrimbor takes the Three Rings and travels to Lórien to seek the
advice of Galadriel. She counsels that the Rings should be dispersed
and hidden far from Eregion, where Sauron believes them to be.
Celebrimbor gives Nenya to her; he then travels to Lindon and delivers
Vilya and Narya to Gil-galad, who later gives Narya to his
1695 (43,376 B.C.)
- Sauron marches into Eriador from Calenardhon, seeking the Rings of
Power and beginning the war between him and elves. As the vanguard of
Sauron's army approaches Eregion, Celeborn leads a sortie out of
Ost-in-Edhil and is successful in driving it back. But when Sauron's
main host arrives, Celeborn is overrun and retreats, but he is cut off
from returning to Eregion. So he retreats north and meets up with an
army sent from Lindon by Gil-galad and commanded by Elrond.
1697 (43,374 B.C.)
- Eregion is overrun and Ost-in-Edhil falls. Celebrimbor is captured
on the very steps to the great house of the Gwaith-i-Mírdain and
tortured into telling where the Nine and the Seven is hidden, but
refuses to reveal the location of the Three. Sauron nevertheless
guesses their whereabouts. He marches north-west and meets Elrond and
Celeborn, who leads the survivors from Eregion. They would have been
overwhelmed except Sauron is attacked in the rear by a force issuing
from Moria (this was a force of Dwarves accompanied by Elves of Lorien
led by Amroth). Sauron turns and drives the Dwarves back into Moria,
but the Gates are shut and he can not enter. Allowed time to move,
Elrond retreats north to Imladris with Celeborn.
1699 (43,372 B.C.)
- Sauron advances north-west to assail Lindon, but is forced to leave
a strong detachment to besiege Elrond in Imladris. Sauron is thus in
control of Eriador, and reaches the River Lhun.
1700 (43,371 B.C.)
- Tar-Minastir, King of Númenor, sends a great armada to the aid of
Gil-galad which crushes Sauron's forces. The year after, Sauron is
driven out of Eriador and the war ends in favor of the Elves, though
with grievous losses.
2250 (42,821 B.C.)
- The Nazgul appear for the first time.
3262 (41,809 B.C.)
- Sauron is taken as prisoner and led to Númenor, where he corrupts
them into worshipping him as a god and defying the Ban of the Valar.
3319 (41,752 B.C.)
- Númenor sinks, but Elendil and his sons survives and the year after
founds the Númenorean realms-in-exile, Arnor and Gondor. They split
the Palantírs up, Elendil having three and his sons two each. Elendil
puts one palantír in Annuminas, Arnor's capital, one at the watchtower
Amon Sûl, and the last at Emyn Beraid, where it looks west across the
Sea. The Gondor stones are placed at Osgilliath, Minas Anor, Minas
Ithil and Orthanc, an observatory. Sauron, who lost his fair shape in
the downfall, returns to Mordor in the guise of a great, black warrior.
3429 (41,642 B.C.)
- Sauron, knowing that the realm of Gondor is the greatest threat,
lying next to his own land Mordor, attacks and conquers Minas Ithil,
where he burns the White Tree. Anarion defends Osgilliath and Minas
Anor, whereas Isildur, escaping Minas Ithil with the Palantír and a
sapling of the White Tree, travels north up the Anduin to seek aid
from his father.
3430 (41,641 B.C.)
- The Last Alliance is formed, between Elendil, High King of Arnor and
Gondor, and Gil-galad, High King of the Noldor, knowing that Sauron
can only be defeated if they join forces.
3431 (41,640 B.C.)
- The Last Alliance assembles their armies in Imladris, with Gil-galad
and Elendil as the supreme commanders. Cirdan of Mithlond, Amroth of
Lorien and Oropher of Mirkwood also join the Alliance.
3434 (41, 637 B.C.)
- The armies of the Alliance crosses the Misty Mountains and meets the
forces of Sauron at what is to be known as Dagorlad, the Battle Plain.
The Alliance triumphs and marches into Mordor, laying siege to Barad-dûr.
3440 (41,631 B.C.)
- Anarion is killed by a rock, thrown from the tower which crushes
3441 (41,630 B.C.)
- Sauron makes a desperate attempt to break the siege and engages
personally in battle. Although he manages to kill Gil-galad and
Elendil, Isildur slays him and cuts the Ring from his finger. End of
the Second Age.
1 (41,629 B.C.)
- Isildur, son of Elendil `The Tall', proclaims his lordship over the
Dúnedain of the North and the South. He remains in Gondor, restoring
order in the kingdom while sending a greater part of the army of Arnor
2 (41,628 B.C.)
- Isildur plants a seedling of the White Tree in Minas Anor. He sets
out to Imaldris in the early part of Ivanneth (September) after
delivering the southern kingdom to Melendil. However on the thirtieth
day of his journey near the northern borders of Gladden fields,
Isildur and his three elder sons, Elendur, Aratan and Ciryon are slain
after being attacked by orcs. The One Ring is lost in the Anduin
3 (41,627 B.C.)
- Ohtar to whom Isildur had given the shards of Narsil reaches
Imaldris after having escaped the orc attack at Gladden fields
1150 (40,479 B.C.)
- The Fallohides, one of the three strains of hobbits enter Eriador.
The Stoors move to Dunland
1300 (40,329 B.C.)
- The year of reappearance of the Ring-Wraiths. The realm of Angmar is
founded in the north by the `Witch-King' who is none other than the
chief of the Ring-Wraiths. The hobbits migrate westwards and many of
them settle at Bree. Orcs begin to increase in the Misty mountains and
attack the dwarves
1601 (40,028 B.C.)
- Many hobbits migrate from Bree and Argeleb II grants them the land
beyond Baranduin. The hobbits are led by the Fallohide brothers Marco
and Blanco. Thus the foundation for the Shire is laid and this year
becomes the first of the Shire reckoning.
1856 (39,773 B.C.)
- King Narmacil II of Gondor is slain in a battle with the Wainriders
beyond the Anduin. Gondor loses its eastern territories and the people
of the eastern and southern Rhovanion are enslaved. Calimehtar, son of
Narmacil II becomes the king of Gondor. It is supposed that the
Ringwraiths re-entered Mordor at this time.
1975 (39,654 B.C.)
- Arvedui dies after the ship that Cirdan sends for him drowns in the
Bay of Forochel. The northern kingdom comes to an end with the death
of Arvedui. The palantíri of Annúminas and Amon Sûl are also lost. The
fleet of Eärnur reaches the havens of Lindon. The Witch-King is
defeated in the Battle of Fornost. He vanishes from the north.
Glorfindel, the elf lord prophesies that the Witch-King would not
perish at the hands of a man.
1980 (39,659 B.C.)
- The dwarves delving deeply in Moria for mithril rouse a Balrog of
Morgoth that had lain hidden there. Durin VI is slain by the balrog.
The Witch-king comes to Mordor and gathers the Ringwraiths
2000 (39629 B.C.)
- The Nazgûl issue from Mordor by the Pass of Cirith Ungol and lay
siege to Minas Ithil. .
2002 (39, 627 B.C.)
- The fall of Minas Ithil. The Nazgûl capture the palntír of the
tower. Minas Ithil becomes a place of fear and is renamed Minas Morgul.
2043 (39,586 B.C.)
- Eärnur becomes the king of Gondor after the death of king Eärnil.
The king of Minas Morgul taunts him and challenges Eärnur to a single
combat. However, Mardil the steward restrains the wrath of Eärnur..
2050 (39,579 B.C.)
- The Witch-king's challenge is renewed and Eärnur rides to Minas
Morgul and is lost. Mardil begins ruling Gondor in the name of the
King as no worthy claimant to the crown of Gondor is found.
2463 (39,166 B.C.)
- The formation of the White council. It is in this year that Déagol
the Stoor finds The One Ring while fishing in the Anduin. Sméagol
2485 (39, 144 B.C.)
- Birth of Eorl the young, who later becomes the first King of the Mark.
2770 (38,859 B.C.)
- Smaug the Golden, greatest of the dragons of his day descends on
Erebor. The town of Dale is ruined and deserted. Thrór escapes with
Thrain II and Thorin II.
2890 (38,739 B.C.)
- Bilbo Baggins is born in the Shire.
2931 (38,698 B.C.)
- Aragorn `Elessar', son of Arathorn born on the first of March.
2939 (38,690 B.C.)
- The events of THE HOBBIT.
2968 (38,661 B.C.)
- Birth of Frodo Baggins.
2980 (38,649 B.C.)
- Aragorn and Arwen meet in Lórien and plight their troth upon the
hill of Cerin Amroth. Gollum gets acquainted with Shelob. Theoden
becomes King of Rohan after the death of Thengel..
2983 (38,646 B.C.)
- Birth of Faramir, son of Denethor II. Birth of Samwise Gamgee.
3001 (38,628 B.C.)
- Bilbo's one hundred and eleventh birthday and his farewell feast.
Gandalf suspects that the ring that Bilbo has could be the One Ring of
Sauron. Gandalf seeks for news of Gollum and he seeks the aid of Aragorn.
3018-3019 (38,611 B.C.)
- The War of the Ring. The beginning of the Fourth Age.
THE FOURTH/THURIAN/PRE-CATACLYSMIC AGE
1 (38,610 B.C.)
- First year of the Fourth Age.
61 (38,549 B.C.)
- Death of Rose Gamgee, Sam's wife (born Rose Cotton). Samwise Gamgee
delivers the red book into the hands of Elanor, and passes into the West.
120 (38490 B.C.)
- Death of Aragorn II Elessar (Envinyatar, Telcontar), and Ascendance
to the throne of the Reunited Kingdom of his son Eldarion.
121 (38489 B.C.)
- Death of Arwen Undomiel, queen of the Reunited Kingdom..
- Riss-Urm/Eem/Sangamon Interglacial Age truly sets in.
- The oldest image of a star pattern, that of the famous constellation
of Orion, has been recognised on an ivory tablet as between 32,500 and
38,000 years old. The tiny sliver of mammoth tusk contains a carving
of a man-like figure with arms and legs outstretched in the same pose
as the stars of Orion. Believed to have been left behind by the
mysterious Aurignacian people who moved into Europe from the east
supplanting the indigenous Neanderthals.
- The vampiress Akivasha : "The name of that ancient, evil, beautiful
princess still lived the world over in song and legend, though ten
thousand years had rolled their cycles since the daughter of Tuthamon
had reveled in purple feasts amid the black halls of ancient Luxor".
Obviously Luxor---later part of Stygia---was founded before that
time---in my view, by Black Numenoreans fleeing Gondor. Note that the
only earlier vampire on record was mentioned in the Lay of Lithien.
33, 700 B.C.
- King Kull reigns in Valusia.
- The waning of the civilization of the main, or Thurian continent...
a civilization dominated by the kingdoms of Ramelia, Valusia, Verulia,
Grondar, Thule and Commoria. These people spoke a similar language,
suggesting a common origin. (Westron, in my view. Howard's words, my italics. "Valka", the name
of the greatest god of that time, seems to be taken from Quenya root
words which mean "power-bright", although they are put together oddly.
It may be a later name for Eru. "Grondar", of course, suggests
"Gondor", although they seem to be the least of the kingdoms, perhaps
asserting a variation of the old name to reclaim old glories.) Though
they don't seem to be in agreement. The barbarians of the age were the
Picts, who lived on islands far out on the Western Ocean, the
Atlanteans, who dwelt on a small continent between the Pictish islands
and the Thurian continent, and the Lemurians, who inhabited a chain of
large islands in the Eastern Hemisphere. There were vast regions of
unexplored land, the civilized kingdoms, though enormous, occupied a
relatively small portion of the whole planet.
(I've put a gap of 500 years here, because evidently the island-nation
called Atlantis by Howard, which was barbaric at this time, possibly
named in memory of Numenor, or Atlantte, had become more civilized,
and had colonies on the mainland when the Great Cataclysm hit.)
- Then the Cataclysm rocked the world. (There have been suggestions
of a cometary impact---see http://www.rehupa.com/rippke_cataclysm.htm
by Dale Rippke) Atlantis and L&muria sank, and the Pictish Islands
were heaved up to form the mountain peaks of a new continent. Sections
of the Thurian Continent vanished under the waves, or sinking, formed
great inland lakes and seas. Volcanoes broke forth and terrific
earthquakes shook down the shining cities of the empires. Whole
nations were blotted out.
33,200 B.C. (Great Cataclysm)
- Many Lemurians also made their way to the Eastern coast of the
Thurian continent, only to be enslaved by the ancient race which
already dwelt there. And their history, for thousands of years, became
a story of brutal servitude. (Note the "thousands"--at least two.)
33,000 B.C. - - 28,000 B.C.
- In Australia a major extinction also
The timing of this extinction is much more poorly known; however, it
appears to date to between 38,000 B.C. and 18,000 B.C. Europe,
Asia, and Africa also experienced some extinction toward the end of
the Pleistocene. However, on all of these continents the extinction
was less severe (fewer species involved).
- Upper Paleolithic Age/Late Stone
Age/Aurignacian Tool Age Began.
- The ozone layer was destroyed 35,000 years ago in a disaster
which lasted 2,000 years. The cause was probably the closest supernova
explosion in known history (150 light-years away) which ripped away the ozone layer
and bombarded Earth with waves of cosmic rays. The ozone layer gradually
reestablished itself, but not without considerable damage to Earth's biosphere.
Studies of traces of beryllium-10 in ice formed about 35,000 years ago in the ice
caps of both poles support this conclusion. The surviving relics of the
explosion may have formed the Veil Nebula in the constellation of Cygnus.
The visual effects would have been spectacular. The exploding star would have
been brighter than the full Moon for months, casting shadows and turning
night into day. It would have been as painful to the eye to look at as our Sun.
The physical effects on our ancestors would have been equally cataclysmic.
The successive shock waves would have lasted for more than 100 human
generations. The Earth would have been bombarded both by cosmic rays and by ultraviolet
radiation from the Sun as the ozone layer was ripped away. There would have
been extinctions amongst marginal species throughout the biosphere. The demise of
the Neanderthals would have been accelerated if they were, as now believed,
pale-skinned. Darker-skinned races would have been at least risk from
unrestrained ultraviolet radiation, but those bursts of cosmic radiation must have
caused random mutation in all lifeforms.
The cosmic ray bombardment would also have effected the Sun's own surface
activity, especially it's electromagnetic and gravitic balances, triggering
cycles of activity sufficient to affect Earth's climate. The demise of larger
variants of common species and the widespread expiration of herd herbivores in
Eurasia and the Americas may have been caused by these sharp geographical shocks,
even more so than through the conventional explanation of over-hunting by
expanding Neolithic human populations.
- Modern humans Homo sapiens, sapiens in Europe.
- Forced to battle continually for their lives, the Atlanteans yet
managed to retain vestiges of their former state of advanced
barbarism. Then, their struggling culture came into contact with the
powerful Pictish nation. The stone-age kingdoms clashed, and in a
series of bloody wars, the outnumbered Atlanteans were hurled back
into savagery, and the evolution of the Picts was halted. Five hundred
years after the cataclysm, the barbaric kingdoms had vanished.
- Meanwhile, in the far North, another people are slowly are coming
into existence. A band of barely human savages had fled thither to
escape destruction, they found the icy countries inhabited only by a
species of snow-apes, whom they fought and drove beyond the arctic
circle, to perish, as the savages thought. The primitive humans then
adapted to their hardy new environment and survived.
- Another lesser cataclysm further altered the appearance of the
original continent and left a great inland sea to separate East and
West. The earthquakes, floods and volcanoes completed the ruin of the
barbarians, already begun by their fierce tribal wars.
- Far to the East, the enslaved Lemurians have risen and destroyed
their masters. They are savages, stalking the ruins of a strange
civilization. The survivors of that civilization have come westward,
overthrowing the pre-humans of the south and founding a new kingdom
- Acheron founded.
- In the North, one tribe is growing: the Hyborians or Hyboai. Their
god is Bori, some great chief whom legend has raised to the status of
a deity. 1,500 years in the snow-country have made them a vigorous and
warlike race. And now, they are pushing southward in leisurely treks.
- Tribes of twany-haried Hyborians have moved southward and westward,
conquering and destroying many of the small unclassified clans. As
yet, these conquerors have not come in contact with the older races.
To the Southeast, the descendants of the Zhemri are beginning to seek
to revive some faint shadow of their ancient culture. To the West, the
apish Atlanteans have began the long hard climb back toward true
humanity, while to the South of them, the Picts remain savages,
apparently defying the laws of nature by neither progressing nor
retrogressing. And, far to the South dreams the ancient, mysterious
kingdom of Stygia. On its Eastern borders wander clans of nomadic
savages already known as the sons of Shem, while next to the Picts, in
the broad Valley of Zingg, protected by great mountains, a nameless
band of primitives has created an advanced agricultural system and life.
- Meanwhile, the first of the Hyborian kingdoms has come onto
existence, the rude and barbaric kingdom of Hyperborea, which had its
beginnings in a crude fortress of boulders heaped to repel tribal
attack. There are few more dramatic events in history than the rise of
this fierce kingdom, whose people turned abruptly from nomadic life to
rear dwellings of naked stone, surrounded by cyclopean walls.
- Five hundred years after the founding of Acheron, the first of the
Hyborian wanderers reached its borders, to recoil from the priests and
warriors of the South. For nearly two thousand years, Acheron warred
against the invading Hyborians. At last the barbarians swept over
Acheron and blotted it out, to be stopped at last by the disciplined
armies of Acheron's sister empire, her southern neighbor Stygia.
29, 200 B.C.
- All this time, far to the East, the Lemurians are evolving a strange
semi-civilization all their own, built on the wreckage of the one they
overthrew. The Hyborians, meanwhile, have founded the kingdom of Koth,
on the borders of the pastoral lands of Shem. The savages of the lands
of Shem, through contact with the Hyborians and the ever ravaging
Stygians, are slowly emerging from barbarism. Far to the North, the
first kingdom of Hyperborea is overthrown by another tribe which,
however, retains the old name. Southeast of Hyperborea, a kingdom of
the Zhemri has come into being, under the name of Zamora. To the
Southwest, invading Picts have merged the agricultural dwellers of the
fertile Valley of Zingg. This mixed race in turn will be conquered by
a roving tribe of Hybori, and from this mingled elements will come the
kingdom called Zingara.
The Earth's climate system entered another big freeze-up. At first it's
relatively mild, like the "Little Ice Age" of medieval times. It
doesn't become more pronounced until 25,000 B.C.
- The kingdoms of the world are clearly defined. The kingdoms of the
Hyborians - Aquilonia, Nemedia, Brythunia, Hyperborea, Koth, Ophir,
Argos, Corinthia and the Border Kingdom - dominate the Western world.
Zamora lies to the East, Zingara to the Southwest of these. Far to the
South sleeps Stygia, untouched by foreign invasions, though the
peoples of Shem have exchanged the Stygian yoke for the less galling
one of Koth.
- Another five centuries and the Hybori peoples are the possessors of
a virile civilization, whose most powerful kingdom is Aquilonia,
though others vie with it in strength and splendor. They are the
supreme in the Western world. In the North, however, golden-haired,
blue-eyed barbarians have driven the remaining Hyborian tribes out of
all the snow-countries except Hyperborea. Their land is known as
Nordheim, and they are divided into the red-haried Vanir and the
yellow-haired Aesir. Now the Lemurians enter history again, as Hyrkanians.
- 27,000 B.C. - Homo Erectus disappears.
- Conan born.
- Conan dies.
- Neantherthals disappear.
- Atrus, priest of Mitra, and Gorm, chief of Picts, meet.
- Gorm and the Picts destroy the Aquilonian empire. Hyrkanian hordes
comes riding from the East.
Death of Gorm
End of Hyborian Age…"For a short age, Pict and Hyrkanian snarled at
each other over the ruins of the world they had conquered. Then began
the glacial ages"
Glacial ages restarted around 25,000 B.C. I'm not sure what a "short
age" is---I'm putting it as a century.
19,000 B.C. - 15,000 B.C.
- Late Glacial Cold Stage/Upper
Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Global ice extent was at its greatest.
- Greatest ice extent reached.
16,000 B.C. - 12,000 B.C.
- Melt begins slow, in span of several
decades a dramatic shift in global weather brought a rapid end to the
cold, glacial Pleistocene epoch.